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Desalegn, with the help of relatives and friends, organizations and schools in Ethiopia, is able to deal with customs fees. He has traveled to secure computers, and often pays for the refurbishing supplies out of his own pocket.
One measure of how much more prevalent computers are in schools is the way that teachers and students have been surveyed about their use. Distilling insights from the National Center for Education Statistics, eSpark looked at how computer use in public schools has changed over the past decade, including how the COVID-19 pandemic affected computer use in classrooms.
In 1983, there was one computer per 125 students enrolled in public schools, according to an article in Education Week. Some were being used for career guidance, not in the classroom. By 2009, the National Center for Education Statistics asked whether computers were available in the classroom, most of which were shared, and whether teachers occasionally brought in other computers for students to use. Computers are far more ubiquitous today, and the metrics available focus on whether each student is assigned their own computer and if they can take it home with them.
Some critics say the emphasis on the number of computers in schools fails to address how they're being used. A study in Peru, albeit looking at laptops for children at home, found no effect on academic achievement or cognitive skills.
When schools closed during the COVID-19 pandemic and students relied on remote learning, racial and socioeconomic disparities widened. Even a year into the pandemic, children were falling behind because of uneven access to computers, poor home internet connections, and a lack of direct instruction from teachers.
During the 2019-2020 school year, 45% of schools reported having a computer for each student and an additional 37% had a computer for each student in some grades or classrooms. Overall, about a third of the computers were given to students to carry with them during the school day, 39% stayed in a specific classroom, 16% moved between classrooms, and 10% remained in dedicated rooms such as computer labs and libraries.
One-third of schools credited technology with helping their students become more independent, while similar shares said it helped students learn at their own pace and think critically. Critics say however that there has not been enough focus on how computers in particular are used in the classroom.
In the 2019-2020 school year, about 15% of public schools let all students take computers home with them, and another 8% allowed students in some grades to do so, per the NCES. Another 15% let students take computers home short term, and 9% provided mobile hotspots or devices that connected to the web and included paid data plans.
The pandemic highlighted inequities that already existed for poorer students. One study noted that although two-thirds of Americans own smartphones, only 61% of homes on average have high-speed internet. Six in 10 schools with high levels of student poverty had passed out electronic devices to those who needed them. Because of the pandemic, schools began distributing computers to students who otherwise didn't have one.
When the COVID-19 pandemic began, only about a fifth of schools planned for long closures. Nearly 31% of teachers said that their students' lack of access to devices and high-speed internet interfered with instruction. Teachers were worried that even when students have access to computers, they may fall behind without individual support.
Intel makes contributions where we have a major presence. Intel Communications and Public Affairs manages our used computer contributions to accredited schools and community-based nonprofit organizations in the United States.
I once spent an entire day with a team responsible for submitting data to the education minister about how many computers were in that country's schools, and what the related student-computer ratio was. The minister wanted to promote a new policy proposing a target 'student-computer ratio', and wanted to know how practical (or outlandish) her initial thoughts in this regard might be.Thankfully, team members did have access to pretty reliable data about how many schools the country had, and how many students were in these schools (a shocking number of countries don't have reliable data on these counts). Led by a statistician, who liked to be rather more exact about things than a number of the politicans she worked for, the team was wrestling with questions like:
Another market-research firm, talmis Inc. of Chicago, has reported higher figures, estimating that there were 629,700 microcomputers in public schools as of June 1984. But those figures were based on a representative sample of roughly 500 public-school respondents, said Anne Wujcik, director of educational marketing for the firm. They also include, she said, about 40,000 computers used for administrative purposes.
Some experts, for example, note that a single computer lab in a school building is adequate to teach students about computers, but they say that if computers are to be used to deliver curriculum, then each class should have at least one.
The proportion of public elementary schools using at least one microcomputer for instructional purposes increased from 62.4 to 82.2 percent, with the average number of computers per school increasing from 3.6 to 5.1 and the number of students per computer dropping from 112.4 to 79.3.
The proportion of public juniorhigh schools using at least one microcomputer for instructional purposes increased from 86.1 to 94.6 percent, with the average number of computers per building increasing from 7.3 to 11.0 and the number of students per computer dropping from 92.3 to 61.2.
The proportion of public high schools using at least one microcomputer for instructional purposes increased from 80.5 to 93.1 percent, with the average number of computers per building increasing from 10.6 to 16 and the number of students per computer dropping from 76.6 to 51.5.
Computers in the classroom include any digital technology used to enhance, supplement, or replace a traditional educational curriculum with computer science education. As computers have become more accessible, inexpensive, and powerful, the demand for this technology has increased, leading to more frequent use of computer resources within classes, and a decrease in the student-to-computer ratio within schools.
College campuses used computer mainframes in education since the initial days of this technology, and throughout the initial development of computers. The earliest large-scale study of educational computer usage conducted for the National Science Foundation by The American Institute for Research concluded that 13% of the nation's public high schools used computers for instruction, although non-users still outnumbered users at a ratio of 2 to 1. The study also concluded that computers proved to be very popular with students, and that applications run on early models included sports statistic managers, administration tools, and physics simulators.
In 1975, Apple Inc. began donating Apple 1 model computers to schools, and mainframes began to lose their former dominance over academic research. Computer usage continued to grow rapidly throughout this era. In 1977, it was estimated that over 90% of students at Dartmouth College had used computers at some point in their college careers. Walter Koetke, the director of a Lexington, Massachusetts school system commented that, \"It's still possible for a student to get through here without using the computer, but he would certainly have to try to do it\". In 1983, Drexel University became the first campus to require every student to purchase a laptop.
Computer-aided instruction gained widespread acceptance in schools by the early 1980s. It was during this period that drilling and practice programs were first developed for exclusive classroom use. Schools became divided over which computer manufacturers they were willing to support, with grade schools generally using Apple computers and high schools preferring DOS based machines. Hardware shortages in schools became a major issue, leaving many teachers unable to provide enough computers for students to use. Despite this, by 1989 computer usage shifted from being a relative rarity in American public schools, to being present in nearly every school district.
The early 1990s marked the beginning of modern media technology such as CD-ROMs as well as the development of modern presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. Other computer-based technology including the electronic whiteboard and the laptop computer became widely available to students. Internet technologies were also gaining prevalence in schools. In 1996, Bill Clinton made over $2 billion in grants available in the Technology Literacy Challenge Fund, a program which challenged schools to make computers and the Internet available to every student, connected to the outside world, and engaging. This marked a significant increase in the demand for computer technology in many public school systems throughout the globe.
Correlating with the development of modern operating systems like Windows 98 and the continuing support of government funding, the prevalence of educational computer usage boomed during this era. Between 1997 and 1999, the ratio of students to multimedia computers decreased from 21 students per machine to less than 10 students per machine. Colleges began creating specialized classrooms designed to provide students with access to the utilization of the most modern technology available. Classrooms such as the \"Classroom 2000\" built at Georgia Tech in 1999 which featured computers with audio and video equipment designed to capture detailed recordings of lectures as a replacement for traditional note taking began to become more common. By 2000, the student to computer ratio at some schools in the US decreased to only 1 students per school computer. 59ce067264